Observing Plan for Cub Scouts

This is a plan for a star party for Cub Scouts. To introduce anybody to the night sky, you have to get out and look at the night sky. It's more fun than listening to facts about the night sky. It gives people the actual experience of what astronomy is about. A Cub Scout can complete the Astronomy Belt Loop without looking at the sky at all. In my opinion, this is an error in the design of the award. This observing plan will help you get them outside and looking at the stars.

Because these are children, this observing plan concentrates on easy, appealing objects that will help complete requirements of the astronomy-related Cub Scout awards. I have assumed:

This plan is too ambitious to get through all of it in one event. It takes time to show a large group of people each object. You will probably want to talk through some of this material while the boys are taking turns looking at the first couple of targets. If you have the Orion Nebula, Saturn or Venus, and the Moon visible, I would start with those three. You may not get beyond three targets with a large group.

This plan is roughly organized as a story about the evolution of cosmic objects.


One of the requirements is to show how to set up and focus a telescope or binoculars. This requires teaching how to use the equipment first, then giving each boy a chance to do the task. This will take a long time. Binoculars are easier and faster for this activity, but many boys will prefer to get their hands on a telescope.

Star-forming nebulas

Young star clusters

Older groups of stars

Galaxies - larger groupings of stars

Colored Stars

Double Stars


The Cub Scout awards require knowing only three constellations. Here are a few of the easiest to recognize and learn:

Spring constellations

Summer constellations

Fall constellations

Winter constellations

Point out that although one of the Cub Scout requirements says the boys may use a telescope to find a constellation, a telescope is useless to look at something as big as a constellation. However, it can be used to find pretty asterisms. Examples:

There are many stories about the pictures in the skies you could tell to the group.

A requirement for the Boy Scout Astronomy Merit Badge is to know the zodiacal constellations. Cub Scouts have heard the names of many of these constellations, and will enjoy finding them and hearing their stories.

Zodiacal constellations

Solar System

Describe a solar system as a star and everything orbiting it. We can look at the Sun and the major planets. Examples of the other objects (the asteriod belt, the Kuiper belt, and the Oort cloud) are more difficult to show.


I suggest a brief discussion of the current controversy about the definition of a planet.


Artificial Satellites

Some pass over every night. Heavens Above has nightly predictions. If the International Space Station is visible on the night you are out, it is the brightest and easiest to see.


Some fall every night, but they boys will have to be patient to see one.


It is possible to show the larger asteroid, but they are difficult targets and will appear to children the same as dim stars.

Planetary nebulas - Stars that have lost something

Supernovas - stars that have died

The easiest supernova remnant to show is the Crab Nebula. However, it requires fairly dark skies, and is not an obvious target for children. Best view in northern hemisphere in winter. Finder chart Image

In March 2008 a gamma ray burst was detected south of gamma Bootes. A visual glow was observable there. Though it is unknown for how long this event will be visible, at the time of the explosion it was briefly visible to the naked eye, and the most distant object (approximately 7 billion light years) that was visible to the naked eye.

Black Hole

You can't actually show a black hole. However, if Sagittarius is up, you can point out the location of the one closest to us, at the center of our own galaxy. Best view in northern hemisphere in summer.



This is an opportunity to communicate the grandeur and awe of observing. The easy explanation of "universe" is "everything." Whether "everything" should mean "everything physical" is a theological question. This age group will probably not follow a discussion of the alternate theories that astrophysicists enjoy.


Related Observing Plans

Observing plans customized to specific event dates are at: